2. Reproductive Toxicity

In reproductive toxicity testing, phenotypic expressions of toxic effects on the reproductive cycle are determined by histopathological methods which are often very laborious and consequently costly. End points studied vary widely from cellular functions such as adhesion, migration, proliferation and differentiation to higher functions at the level of the organism such as pattern formation, organ growth and differentiation, and the development of malformations. The developmental program, relevant to male and female germ cell maturation as well as embryogenesis and postnatal maturation provides unique possibilities to monitor reproductive toxicity at the level of gene expression. Validated alternative test methods are therefore urgently required.

Toxicogenomics applied in this area will be instrumental to refine alternative reproductive toxicity testing as well as to develop new alternatives, both of which will reduce and refine animal usage.

<Previous   Next>

Website built by Solide